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Austria

6 growing regions

Description to Austria

In Austria already since the time of the settlement by the Celts Winegrowing was practiced just under 3,000 years ago. The Burgenland community Zagersdorf and the Lower Austrian community Stillfried in the Weinviertel are considered the oldest wine-growing communities in Austria. Grape seeds were found in both places, dating back to 700 or 900 BC. Chr. Originate and clearly the species Vitis vinifera are assigned. The lifting of the emperor Domitian (51-96) issued ban on planting of vines outside Italy by emperor Probus (232-282) had a positive effect on viticulture. For this began in the Roman provinces of Noricum (Upper and Lower Austria) and Pannonia (Burgenland) an orderly viticulture culture. In the almost 200 years of turmoil of the migration of peoples from the end of the 4th century, viticulture almost came to a standstill due to many devastations.

A revival took place again only from the 9th century under the influence of Emperor Charlemagne (742-814). Special services to the viticulture are the order of the Benedictine and Cistercian attributed. In the Middle Ages were mainly the monasteries (Kremstal) Stift Klosterneuburg (Wagram), Stift Melk (Wachau) and Stift Heiligenkreuz (Thermenregion) Carrier of the viticulture culture. This also made a significant contribution Dinstlgut (Wachau). The oldest Austrian winegrowing regulations with regulations regarding working hours and stipulated punishments with grape stealing stems from the Habsburg Duke Albrecht II (1298-1358) from the year 1352. Even in the Middle Ages there was also a classification into wine quality classes.

In the 16th century, viticulture reached its peak in Austria, the vineyard was at least three times as large as today (50,000 ha) with about 150,000 to perhaps even 200,000 hectares. The Salzburg monk mountain was also planted with vines as the slopes of Semmering. There were vineyards near Linz ( upper Austria ), at Salzburg and to a large extent also in Carinthia and Tirol, And the capital Wien is literally built on vineyards. The wine book of the clergyman Johann quickly (1540-1612) describes in detail the viticulture, the cellaring techniques and the drinking culture this time. Due to the advent of the beer, high tax burdens and the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), however, it came in the 17th century to a decline. Above all, the tax brought problems, too Ungeld It was raised from 10% to 30% in just 12 years. As a result, many vineyards were cleared and wheat or other products were grown instead. Now inferior grape varieties were preferred and cheaper mass wine won.

Under Maria Theresa (1717-1780) orders were issued for the use of cheap wine. It originated many vinegar-settlers, liquor distilleries and mustard production , Under Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) was allowed on 17 August 1784 in a written decree, the own made at place also to sell in your own house. He thus laid the foundation for the this year, In the 19th century, there were some disasters. An extreme cold snap, imported from America fungal diseases, as well as a negative climax the phylloxera devastated whole wine-growing areas. The pest probably reached Austria in 1867, when August-Wilhelm Freiherr von Babo (1827-1894), director of the company founded in 1860 Klosterneuburger Weinbauinstituts, from Germany got American vines.

A milestone in the Austrian wine history was by Robert Schlumberger (1814-1879). This presented in 1846 after the Méthode champenoise produced "Vöslauer white sparkling wine", which became a great success. After the Second World War, the old structures were changed through rationalization and mechanization. The conversion to the new training system the so-called high culture by Lenz Moser III. (1905-1978) in Rohrendorf at Krems in Lower Austria enabled the use of state-of-the-art equipment. By using diethylene glycol it came in 1985 to the "wine scandal". As a result, stricter laws and, above all, controls were introduced in Austria, which made a decisive contribution to improving quality. In 1993 the project became Certification of vines started with the aim to improve the quality in the long term by analyzing and selecting the best possible vine material.

Austria is characterized by a continental-pannonian climate. There are cold winters and hot, dry summers with a long one growth cycle, Warm, sunny summer days with often cool nights and mild autumn days are typical of most wine regions. The average annual rainfall in the East is 400 millimeters, in Styria it can be 800 millimeters or more. Positive influence have the Danube and Lake Neusiedl in Burgenland. On the banks of the second largest steppe lake in Europe, grapes of the predicate stages often mature in late autumn outbreak. Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese approach. Due to the often very low temperatures from December to January in the east is also a considerable production of Eiswein possible.

The altitude is usually about 200 meters, in Lower Austria to 400 meters, the highest vineyards are located in Styria to 560 meters above sea level. The wine areas are mostly in temperate climates without extremes, such as on the 47th and 48th parallel; comparable to the French Burgundy, The soil types are quite different. In the Weinviertel and in the Danube valley, loess, in the Kremstal valley and the Wachau primary rock, in the Thermenregion Kalk, in Burgenland slate, loam, marl, loess and sand, as well as in Styria, brown earth and volcanic soils prevail.

The number of winegrowers has halved from 45,380 with an average farm size of 1.28 hectares (1987) to 32,044 with 1.52 hectares (1999), and finally to 20,181 with 2.26 hectares (2009). Many small winemakers with one hectare and less vineyard size have sold their land to larger farms or abandoned the management. Around 6,500 businesses are producers bottlers, the other winegrowers deliver their grapes Winzergenossenschaften or wineries. Slightly more than half of the bottlers produce between 5,000 and 10,000 liters of wine each year. Austria is divided into three winegrowing regions (by 2009 there were four with Wien ). These are wine country Austria (with the wine regions Burgenland, Lower Austria and Wien ), Steirerland (wine region Styria) and Bergland Austria (remaining federal states). Somewhat confusing is that Burgenland and Lower Austria both as a whole and their divisions are referred to as wine-growing areas. The winegrowing region Steirerland is under "Styria" additionally also a Weinbaugebiet.

Starting in the year 2002, Austria began to work out clear wine-typical wine profiles. These special wines are named under the name of the specific area with the addition DAC (Districtus Austriae Controllatus). In most cases, the DAC areas bear the name of the winegrowing area and also agree with its borders. In 2016, there was a wine law change. The four vineyards of Burgenland were abandoned and replaced by the DAC areas. Whether other federal states follow, remains to be seen. All wine regions are in the European Wine growing zone B (Germany mostly in A).

WINE REGION
wine region
HECTAR
2009
HECTAR
1999
TOTAL AUSTRIA 45908 48497
WINELAND AUSTRIA (Burgenland, Lower Austria, Wien ) 41582 43224
Burgenland 13842 13496
Eisenberg DAC (formerly Southern Burgenland) 499 437
Leithaberg DAC (formerly Neusiedlersee-Hügelland) 3576 3678
Mittelburgenland DAC 2118 1845
Lake Neusiedl DAC 7649 7534
Rosalia DAC 450 -
Lower Austria 27128 29134
Carnuntum 910 842
Kamptal DAC 3802 3722
Kremstal DAC 2243 2102
Thermenregion 2196 2118
Traisental DAC 789 670
Wachau With Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus 1350 1326
Wagram (formerly Donauland) 2452 2633
Weinviertel DAC 13356 15751
Wien DAC 594 679
STEIRERLAND ( Styria ) 4242 3242
südsteiermark 2340 1739
Volcano country Styria (formerly Southeast Styria) 1401 1105
West Styria / Schilcherland DAC 501 432
BERGLAND AUSTRIA (Residual-Austria)
Carinthia, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg
80 21

Austria map with vineyards

The grape variety level is based on the 2009 vineyard survey. Compared to 1999 there are some significant changes. The proportion of red wines has increased from 25.5% to 34.4%, so the already existing trend has continued. Grüner Veltliner remains at the top of the list, but the share has fallen from 36.0% to 29.5%. The most common red variety Blauer Zweigelt increased from 9.0% to 14.1%. The varieties Chardonnay (Morillon) and Pinot Blanc were still recorded together in 1999. For some varieties, there were huge changes (see table). Total vineyard area decreased by 5.3% from 48,497 to 45,908 hectares. In 2012, 2.125 million hectoliters of wine were produced (see also below) Wine production volumes ).

In Austria, 26 white wine and 14 red wine varieties are considered Quality wine-grape varieties defined, which may be used for all quality types. For the quality level "Wine with specification of grape variety / vintage" are also the five white wine varieties Bronner. Cabernet Blanc. Danube Riesling. Danube Veltliner and Johanniter, as well as the three red wines Cabernet Jura. Pinot Nova and regent allowed.

The terms white burgundy, gray burgundy, blue burgundy, Rhine Riesling and Blaufränkisch are not permitted for "wine with and without grape variety / vintage" in order to exclude confusion due to supposedly indicative regions of origin (Burgundy, Rhine, Franconia). However, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir and Riesling are allowed. Other authorized grape varieties may only be used for "wine without specifying grape variety / vintage", ie they must not appear on the label. That's among other things Alphonse Lavallée. Cardinal and Kerner,

Grape Variety - Austrian
main name
officially permitted in Austria
Synonyms
colour hectare
2009
% -Ant
2009
hectare
1999
Green Valtellina Weißgipfler White 13518 29.4 17479
Zweigelt Blue Zweigelt, Rotburger red 6476 14.1 4350
- White 3597 7.8 4323
- red 3225 7.0 2641
Müller-Thurgau rivaner White 2102 4.6 3289
White Burgundy Pinot Blanc, Klevner White 1995 4.3 ?
White Riesling Riesling, Rhine Riesling White 1863 4.1 1643
Blue Portuguese - red 1622 3.5 2358
ChardonnayMorillon White 1431 3.1 ?
Sauvignon Blanc Muskat-Sylvaner White 933 2.0 314
Blauburger - red 903 2.0 884
White sentence - White 807 1.8 1371
St. Laurent - red 778 1.7 415
Neuburger - White 652 1.4 1094
Blue Burgundy Pinot Noir, Blue Pinot Noir red 649 1.4 409
Merlot - red 649 1.4 112
Cabernet Sauvignon - red 594 1.3 312
muscatel Yellow M., Red M. / Muscat Blanc White 527 1.1 143
Blue Wildbacher - red 450 1.0 464
Frühroter Veltliner malmsey White 424 0.9 626
Scheurebe Seedling 88 White 398 0.9 529
Muscat Ottonel - White 360 0.8 418
TraminerGewurztraminer, Red T., Yellow T. White 321 0.7 363
Bouvier - White 234 0.5 365
Gray Burgundy Pinot Gris, Ruländer White 222 0.5 293
Red Veltliner - White 193 0.4 258
Roesler - red 161 0.4 0
Goldburger - White 150 0.3 309
Syrah Shiraz red 137 0.3 0
Rotgipfler - White 105 0.2 118
Zierfandler Spätrot White 85 0.2 98
Cabernet Franc - red 56 0.1 27
Gem. Set red - red 51 0.1 358
Sylvaner Green Sylvaner White 43 0.1 53
Jubiläumsrebe - White 13 - 30
Furmint - White 9 - 1
Rathay - red 9 - 0
Rosenmuskateller - red - - -
and white varieties - red 155 0.3 91
and red varieties - red 9 - 22
WHITE VARIETIES 30138 65.6 36145
RED VARIETIES 15770 34.4 12,352
TOTAL 45908 100 48497

Wine Categories / Quality Levels : The new EU wine market regulation that took effect in August 2009 brought about fundamental changes in wine types and quality grades. In Austria, land, quality and predicate wines have been retained as traditional names. The new EU-compliant designations PGI and PDO were even banned in order not to confuse consumers. This danger was in the opinion of the authorities also because in 2003 yes with the DAC system (Districtus Austriae Controllatus) a quality wine with a provenance profile was introduced. The new quality levels or designations are (see also in detail under quality system ):

  • Wine without a closer indication of source (formerly the now forbidden term )
  • Wine with grape varieties and / or vintage
  • Landwein (use of is not permitted)
  • Quality wine and predicate wine (use of is not permitted)

Wine without variety and / or vintage - wine from Austria :

  • a maximum of three times the average yield per hectare
  • no other cultivation and production rules
  • to a small extent wine faults such as B. easier sulfurous off allowed

Wine with variety and / or vintage - wine from Austria

  • in appearance, smell and taste free from mistakes
  • Hectare maximum yield 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l of wine (see below for yield)
  • at least 3.5 g / l of total acid
  • Quality wine grape varieties as well as others by country-specific regulation
  • Variety only for the above quality wine grape varieties
  • Minimum alcohol content 8.5% vol
  • maximum enrichment 2%

country wine

  • Grapes from a winegrowing region
  • Hectare maximum yield 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l of wine (see below for yield)
  • only quality wine grape varieties
  • at least 14 ° KMW must weight
  • Alcohol content max. 13.5% vol with white wine, max. 14.5% vol with red wine
  • at least 4 g / l of total acid
  • Sweetening to a maximum of 15 g / l

quality wine

  • positive sensory and analytical test = State test number
  • Grapes from a vineyard
  • Production in the winegrowing region of the wine-growing region or adjacent region
  • only quality wine grape varieties
  • Hectare maximum yield 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l of wine (see below for yield)
  • at least 15 ° KMW must weight
  • at least 9% vol of existing alcohol content (predicate wine 5% vol)
  • at least 4 g / l of total acid
  • Sweetening to a maximum of 15 g / l

  • higher quality wine level (unlike Germany, no premium wine)
  • at least 17 ° KMW
  • maximum 12.9% (13% until 2016) vol Alcohol content maximum 4 g / l residual sugar or 9 g / l

Prädikatsweine
There are the six predicate wine types Spätlese, Auslese, Beerenauslese, Trockenbeerenauslese or Ausbruch, straw wine and Eiswein. General provisions for this are:

  • must comply with all quality wine regulations
  • Residual sugar may only be obtained by fermentation interruption
  • Sweetening or enriching is not allowed
  • Alcohol content at least 5% vol
  • from Auslese grapes with overripe, noble rotten and dried berries ( Botrytis )

late vintage : At least 19 ° KMW; fully ripe grapes.

choice : At least 21 ° KMW; fully ripe, picked grapes.

Beerenauslese : At least 25 ° KMW; overripe and / or noble rotten grapes.

outbreak : At least 27 ° KMW, only noble rotten, overripe and dried berries. The designation may only for the Ruster outbreak be used.

Trockenbeerenauslese : To the. 30 ° KMW; Noble-thin, shriveled grapes.

Strohwein : Since 2002, alternatively, the term reed wine is permitted. At least 25 ° KMW must weight. Must be made from fully ripened and sugar-rich berries that had been stored on straw, reeds or hung on strings for at least three months prior to pressing. According to a law amendment in 2002, however, the grapes can also be pressed after two months, when a must weight of at least 30 ° KMW is reached. If the degree of must is not reached, the wine may (must) be marketed as quality wine.

Eiswein : At least 25 ° KMW. The grapes are pressed and pressed frozen. If the must levels are not reached, the wine may (must) be marketed as quality wine.

Other wine names or types of wine
There are a number of specific names or wine types with wine law requirements. These are . Ausstich. Classic (Classical) Epiphany wine. injected. Leopoldiwein. Jubiläumswein. Virgin Wine (First reading), Martini wine. altar wine. Nikolowein. Primus (First) Premium. reserve (Great Reserve, Grande Reserve), Selection (Selection, Grande Selection), Stefani wine. tradition and Christmas wine, Other types of wine are:

Bergwein : For country wine and quality wine then permitted if grapes from terraced or steep slopes with a slope of over 26%

Winery : Designation for wine, regardless of quality level, made exclusively from grapes harvested in Austria and produced in Austria. However, the wine may only be delivered to retailers by 31 December of the year following the harvest and to the consumer by 31 March of the following year. Heuriger is also the common name in Austria for Buschenschank.

Storm : Protected name for a partly fermented grape must. The existing alcohol content must be at least 1.0% and can be up to 10% vol.

Mixed set : This origin-protected term is reserved exclusively for Austria within the EU. Viennese mixed sentence is a DAC wine,

Biowein : The production is subject to at least the guidelines according to the EU Eco-Regulation and, if necessary, the often stricter rules of organic associations. The Austrian umbrella organization is Bio Austria (see also under Organic viticulture ).

Austrian sparkling wine : Starting in the year 2015, a champagne quality pyramid with the three levels "Classic", "Reserve" and "Large Reserve" has been introduced. See under sparkling wine,

Important wine regulations
The changes resulting from the EU wine market regulations valid from August 2009 are taken into account:

Mostgewicht : For each quality level there is a minimum must weight (see above).

earnings : For wine without grape variety / vintage maximum of three times the average yield per hectare of a holding; for all other quality grades, a maximum yield per hectare of kilograms of grapes or liters of wine applies. If the maximum quantity is exceeded, the whole harvest of a vintage must be marketed as a wine without a varietal or vintage designation. The yield must by means of harvest declaration the BKI (Bundeskellereiinspektion), which also checks for compliance.

The maximum amount per hectare is 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l per hectare of vineyard area registered and planted in the vineyard register for the production of wine, land, quality or predicate wine (1.33 kg of grapes yields 1 l of wine). Following the conversion of the vineyard index to the substantive requirements of the integrated administration and control system, this maximum quantity per hectare is 10,000 kg of grapes or 7,500 l of wine. Until the changeover (probably in 2018), the Federal Minister for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management can reduce or increase the maximum hectar amount for the harvest of a year by up to 20% by ordinance at the request of the National Wine Committee, if this is the climatic or winemaking conditions for require this year. This authorization was used for the 2016 vintage and the maximum yield increased from 9,000 to 10,800 kg / ha.

ancestry : For wine (without grape variety / vintage) may only EU or Austria, in the case of country wine, the wine-growing region must be specified, smaller units (wine region, large city, community) are not allowed. From quality wine, closer origins (winegrowing region, winegrowing area, large-scale estate, municipality, Ried in connection with commune names) may be used if the wine is 100% from the specified area.

vintage : An indication is only permitted for wine without grape variety / vintage. For the other quality grades, the proportion must be at least 85% of the given year. sweeteners Dosage do not count to the 15%. In the next year (January or later) harvested Eiswein indicate the previous year.

varieties : An indication is only permitted for wine (without grape variety / vintage). For the other quality grades, the proportion must be at least 85% of the indicated grape variety. In the case of two or more grape varieties, the names may be given in descending order according to their quantity, if they add up to 100%. The indication unmixed is only allowed if the wine comes from 100% of the grape variety mentioned. For late harvesting and readout the grape variety (s) must be specified.

The mixing of grapes, mash, must or wine from red wine and white wine grapes is only allowed for wine without vintage / variety. These wines may not be referred to as red wine or white wine, but only as "wine from Austria".

sugar content : Austria has made use of the right to indicate the salary residual sugar at the label to be determined as obligatory. As dry is a wine with a maximum of 4 g / l (previously the now not more permissible extra dry) or with a maximum of 9 g / l if the total acidity not more than 2 g / l lower than the residual sugar. At z. B. 8 g / l, this requires at least 6 g / l total acid. The remaining degrees are medium-dry 12 g / l or 18 g / l, if the total acidity is not more than 10 g / l lower, lovely with higher value than for semi-dry but maximum 45 g / l, as well sweet with at least 45 g / l. Wine legally not relevant tart and Austrian dry,

sweetening (Increase residual sugar): Wine with and without grape variety / vintage may be sweetened by a maximum of 4% vol alcohol content; this is about 68 g / l residual sugar which corresponds to approx. 5 ° KMW. On the other hand, country wine and quality wine may be sweetened up to a maximum of 15 g / l of residual sugar. Landwein (that is new) and Qualitätswein (the same) can be sweetened up to a maximum of 15 g / l of unfermented sugar. This can be done by adding grape must, concentrated grape must or (which rarely happens) RTK (Rectified grape must). Sucrose is as sweeteners forbidden. Sweetening is not allowed for Cabinet and Premium wines.

enrich (Increase in natural alcoholic strength): May not exceed 2% by volume of alcoholic strength by authorized means in all wine types. When applied, the maximum for landwein and quality wines is 18 g / l residual sugar permissible (previously 15 g / l). The alcohol content of wine with and without grape variety / vintage for white wine may not exceed 12%, for red wine it may not exceed 12.5% ​​vol. with white country wine or quality wine up to a maximum of 13.5% vol; as well as red country wine and quality wine up to a maximum of 14.5% vol alcohol content. In Cabinet and Prädikatswein Enrichment is not permitted in principle.

Important institutions , committees, authorities and research institutes that carry out researching, organizing, controlling, journalistic or educational functions in connection with viticulture include BKI (Federal Wine inspection), Klosterneuburger Weinbauinstitut. ÖWM (Austria Wine Marketing), Silberberg (Weinbauinstitut) and Wine Academy Austria,

The Austrian standard reference regarding wine right is "Weingesetz" (Manz publishing house), which in the 2012 published 5th edition comprises 818 pages. It provides a representation of the entire wine law including all regulations and EU regulations. Furthermore, there is the electronic database RIS (legal information system) with, inter alia, wine law contributions. See also below wine law,

Influential Austrian wine authors resp. wine critic are Christa Hanten, Helmut O. bang, Walter coachman, Peter Moser, Michael Prónay, Peter Schleimer, Viktor Siegl and Rudolf Steurer, They work in many wine magazines and wine guides as A la Carte - Magazine for Drinking and Eating Culture. Falstaff Wine Guide Austria / South Tyrol. Gault Millau. Coachman's food notes. Vinaria Wine Guide and Wine-Guide-Austria / Wine-Times.

In the wine guide you will find
currently 125 397 Wines and 22 936 Producers, including 1 260 classified producers.
Rating system About Their sources in Wine Guide Wine Samples

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