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DOCG area for dry red wine in the Italian region Piedmont, which after the same name 15 kilometers south of Alba located municipality is named. It was classified as DOC in 1966 and as DOCG in 1980. The area encompasses around 1,300 hectares of vineyards (which in as many plots in the Langhe Mountains with the municipalities (or only parts of them) Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Cherasco, Grinziano, La Morra (with a third of the area by far the largest area), Monforte d'Alba, Novello Rossi, Serralunga d'Alba and Verduno. It is mainly south facing on steep slopes. The historic core areas of Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, La Morra, Monforte and Serralunga account for more than 80 percent of production.
The wine was not aged dry until the mid-19th century. Due to the late maturing Nebbiolo and therefore only in the cold season until December fermentation were inadequate yeasts available. This left a relatively high residual sweetness in the wine. Giulietta Falletti (Marquesa of Barolo) brought in the French oenologist Louis Oudart to help. This relocated the fermentation process to newly created underground wine cellars, ensured constant temperatures and improved cellar hygiene. King Victor Emmanuel II (1820-1878) even provided his Fontanafredda hunting lodge in the Serralunga d'Alba mountains (province of Cuneo) and his son Emanuele Alberto (1851-1894) for the cellar trials. Oudart developed the wine dry for the first time around 1850 (he later provided similar support for the Barbaresco ). A second version names the oenologist Paolo Francesco Staglieno as the main developer of the dry Barolo. This worked from 1836 until the 1840s, among other things, on the royal winery. In any case, it was the inevitable triumph of Barolo.
The DOCG classification also includes permission that vineyards or locations ( Vigna ) on the label may appear. The most famous are Arborina, Arione, Cannubi, Cerequio, Brunate, Bussia, Fisaco, Francia, La Serra, Lazzarito, Monprivato, Ornato, Rocche, Sarmazza and Vigna Rionda. The Barolo is made from 100 percent pure Nebbiolo pressed (the previously allowed addition of Barbera is no longer allowed), which finds the best conditions here. There are essentially two different types soil types, In the districts of Barolo and La Morra, calcareous marl (here called tortonium) predominates. These wines are a bit milder and mature faster. The second type of soil with a higher sandstone content in the Castiglione Falleto, Monforte and Serralunga districts (here called Helvetium) produces more intense wines that require a longer maturation period. However, all Barolo wines have something in common. It is a garnet red color, relatively high Alcohol-. tannin and acidity as well as a complex aroma of plums, roses, Tar and liquorice,
The red wine needs a long aging period of up to ten years or more to completely remove the tannin hardness. The color changes from ruby to brick red. It has an extremely long shelf life, namely at least 25 years and longer. He rightly enjoys true cult character; the Italians call him "King of the Wines and Wine of Kings". The Barolo has 38 months, of which 18 months in wood, the Riserva 62 months, of which 18 months matured in wood. Both have a minimum alcohol content of 12.5% vol. There is also a bitter variant of BaroloChinato, with cinchona and other spices and added to around 16% vol alcohol. From the mid-1990s, the young generation of winegrowers in particular began to try out new wine-making techniques. These include short maceration times, mash heating and Barrique, As the best vintages apply in 1982, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997 and 2000.