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DOCG area for dry red wine in the Italian region Piedmont, after the eponymous 15 kilometers south of Alba named community. He was classified in 1966 as DOC and 1980 as DOCG. The area covers about 1,300 hectares of vineyards (which in just as many plots in the Langhe mountains with the districts (or even only parts of it) Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Cherasco, Grinziano, La Morra (with a third of the area by far the largest area), Monforte d'Alba, Novello Rossi, Serralunga d'Alba and Verduno. They are mainly south facing on steep slopes. The historic core areas Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, La Morra, Monforte and Serralunga account for more than 80 percent of production.
Until the middle of the 19th century, the wine was not dry-built. Due to the late ripening Nebbiolo and thus only in the cold season until December fermentation were only inadequate yeasts available. This always left a relatively high residual sweetness in the wine. In support of Giulietta Falletti (Marquesa of Barolo) the French oenologist Louis Oudart was called into the country. This moved the fermentation process into newly created underground wine cellars, ensured constant temperatures and improved cellar hygiene. For the cellaring experiments King Victor Emmanuel II (1820-1878) even provided his hunting lodge Fontanafredda in the mountains of Serralunga d'Alba (province of Cuneo) and his son Emanuele Alberto (1851-1894) the vineyards. Oudart built the wine for the first time dry around the year 1850 (he also provided similar support later Barbaresco ). A second version names but the oenologist Paolo Francesco Staglieno as authoritative developer of dry Barolo. This worked from 1836 until the 1840s, including at the royal winery. In any case, it began the unstoppable triumph of Barolo.
The DOCG classification also includes the permission that vineyards or vineyards ( Vigna ) on the label may appear. The most famous are Arborina, Arione, Cannubi, Cerequio, Brunate, Bussia, Fisaco, Francia, La Serra, Lazzarito, Monprivato, Ornato, Rocche, Sarmazza and Vigna Rionda. The Barolo is 100 percent pure from the Nebbiolo gekeltert (the earlier allowed addition of Barbera is no longer allowed), which finds the best conditions here. Essentially, there are two different ones soil types, In the districts Barolo and La Morra prevails calcareous marl (here called Tortonium). These wines are a bit milder and mature faster. The second type of soil with a higher content of sandstone in the districts of Castiglione Falleto, Monforte and Serralunga (here called Helvetium) produces more intense wines that require a longer maturation period. However, all Baroloweinen have similarities. This is a garnet color, relatively high Alcohol-. tannin and acidity and a complex aroma of plums, roses, Tar and liquorice,
The red wine needs a long maturation period of up to ten years and more to completely remove the tannin hardness. The color changes from ruby to brick red. He is extremely durable, at least 25 years and longer. He rightly enjoys true cult character; the Italians call him "king of wines and wine of kings". The Barolo has 38 months, of which 18 months in wood, the Riserva 62 months, of which 18 months mature in wood. Both have a minimum alcohol content of 12.5% vol. There is also a bitter variant BaroloChinato, with cinchona and other spices and is aufgespritet to about 16% vol alcohol content. From the mid-1990s, the young winemaker generation in particular began testing new winemaking techniques. These include short maceration times, mash heating and Barrique, As the best vintages apply in 1982, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997 and 2000.