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The country has a very old wine culture, as along the Dalmatian Adriatic coast was already 1000 BC by the Illyrians. Chr. Viticulture operated. The Greeks founded from 600 BC Chr. Some colonies. From this period comes the writing "The Feast of the Scholars", in which the winemaking in the colony Issa (today's island Vis) is reported. A wine from here was even considered the best of the then ancient wines considered. The Roman emperor Probus (232-282) promoted viticulture in the third century AD and the Slavs settling here in the seventh century continued to cultivate it. The Croats developed after their settlement in Dalmatia, viticulture in addition to olive growing and fishing as an important industry.
Around 1000 AD, the Republic conquered Venice the regions of Dalmatia and parts of Istria and kept the rule for over 300 years. From the beginning of the 12th century was a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1232 monks of the Cistercian Order founded in Kutjevo a wine cellar, which still exists today. In the middle of the 15th century, Hungary and Croatia suffered heavy territorial losses due to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. After numerous battles against the Ottomans, a large part of Croatia came under the administration of the Habsburgs in the 18th century. As a result, there was also a mutual influence of viticulture. The privileged import of Italian wines at the end of the 19th century made viticulture difficult. After the Second World War, Croatia became a republic Yugoslavia and self-employed in 1991 as "Republika Hrvatska".
In 2012, the vineyards covered 29,000 hectares, of which 1,293 million hectoliters of wine were produced. Since 2000, the area under vines has dropped by half in just 12 years. Well-known producers are Enjini Ivan, Katunar, Frano Milos, Grgich Miljenko (butler of Grgich Hills Napa Valley), Milos Frano, Krauthaker Vlado, Skaramuca, Zdjelarevic, Zlatan Otok (Zlatan Plenkovic). There are two clearly separated winegrowing regions. These are divided into subregions and these into cultivation areas. The northern continental Croatia (Kontinentalna Hrvatska) extends from Slovenia in the west to the limit Serbia in the East. Here continental climate prevails. The region consists of the seven subregions Moslavina, Plesivica, Podunavlje ( Danube ), Pokuplje (Kupa), Prigorje-Bilogora, Slavonia (Slavonia) and Zagorje-Medjimurje. Two thirds of white wines are produced here.
The southern region of the Croatian Littoral (Primorska Hrvatska) is mainly known for Dalmatia, where the vineyards stretch from Rijeka to Dubrovnik. Here prevails Mediterranean climate. The region is divided into five subregions, Dalmatinska Zagora (Dalmatian hinterland), Hrvatsko Primorye (coastal area with many islands such as Hvar, Korcula, Krk, Lastovo and Vis), Istra (Istria), Sjeverna Dalmacija (Northern Dalmatia) and Srednja / Juzna Dalmacija (Central and South Dalmatia). Red wines, which are among the best-known Croatian brand wines, grow here Dingac. Faros. Peljesac. postup. Prošek and Teran, Of the Blend 2010 illustrates that many autochthonous Varieties cultivated:
Wine categories : In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under quality system ):