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The island in the eastern Mediterranean is politically the Republic of Cyprus, which in international law covers the entire island with 9,251 km ². De facto, however, it consists only of the larger southern part with 5,384 km ², because the smaller north with 3,355 km ² forms the (not recognized by almost all states) regime Turkish Republic of Cyprus. Two British military bases with 255 km ² land area are subordinate of the colonial England. The distance to the south coast of Turkey is only about 70, to the east coast of the greek island Rhodes just under 400 and to the mainland of Greece even over 800 kilometers. Viticulture extends into the third millennium BC. Back. According to mythology, the Greek wine god preferred Dionysos for his drinking wines from this island. The foam-born Aphrodite emerged on the "Roman Rock" the sea and went ashore at the northwestern peninsula Akamas. The Phoenicians and Greeks already founded in the antiquity the tradition of sweet wines. Floor mosaics with wine motifs in the harbor town of Paphos on the southwest coast testify to this ancient viticulture culture.
After the third crusade in 1191, the island came into possession of the Order of St. John, later the Knights Templar and from the year 1312 after its dissolution again the Knights of St. John. The Order cultivated so-called Kommenden (goods with vineyards). Its headquarters were the still existing Kolossi Castle, known as the "Grand Commandery", which is the famous winegrowing area and the legendary sweet wine Commandaria gave the name. At that time, this coveted wine was delivered to many European ruling houses. In the period 1489-1571 Cyprus belonged to the Republic Venice, The Ottoman rule from 1571 to 1878 and the associated alcohol ban caused a total decline of wine culture. Under the British administration from 1878 to 1960 there was a boom again. The Commandaria and similar wines formerly called "Cyprus sherry" developed into export breakers.
From the beginning of the 1990s, Cypriot winegrowing was, so to speak, reinvented by young, well-educated descendants of long-established families and some investors in Cypriot viticulture. This new generation broke with the old myths and began to combine tradition and Middle Eastern way of life with Western dynamics. In the villages of the Troodos Mountains, a number of modern, well-equipped wineries have been built. The small vineyards form a perfect wine ecosystem in the barren scrubland, largely without artificial irrigation and can do without chemical pesticides. The phylloxera has never reached the island, which is why the vines root ungrafted in the soil. It was not until the 1970s that European varieties were introduced in Cyprus. The Blend 2010:
The wine-growing areas are located mainly in the southwest of the island in the southern foothills of the Troodos Mountains in 250 to 1,500 meters above sea level, which they are among the highest vineyards count in Europe. Pitsilia and the northern half of Commandaria have volcanic, the other areas mainly limestone soils. It has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot summers and low rainfall. In 2012, the vineyards covered 9,000 hectares, of which 107,000 hectoliters of wine were produced. The majority of the grape harvest, however, is used for the production of table grapes and raisins, In the past, the Cypriots were not all that great wine connoisseurs, they had everything beer, the pomace brandy Zivania and ouzo consumed. However, there is a trend reversal in favor of wine.
It was not until the accession of Cyprus to the EU that a genome-based classification model based on the French model was introduced, which became effective in 2006. A total of five areas are defined for so-called OEOP wines with designation of origin (OEOP = Oinos Eleghomenis Onomasias Proelefsis). These wines must come from vineyards that are higher than 600 meters above sea level. They must be 85% of native varieties such as Xynisteri (white), as well as Maratheftiko, Mavro or Ophthalmo (all red) are pressed. Furthermore, the proportion of the variety Mavro depending on the growing area may amount to a maximum of 60 and 70%. Vinification and bottling must take place in the OEOP areas. The designation of origin for land wines corresponds to the political division with the four districts Larnaka, Limassol, Nicosia and Paphos. Here is the winemakers free design possible, especially with regard to the use of international grape varieties. The five OEOP areas are:
Commandaria The area covers 14 communities in the southern foothills of the Troodos Mountains north of Limassol. He was first defined in 1980.
Krasohoria Lemesou : The area covers 20 communities in the southern foothills of the Troodos Mountains north of Limassol. Two sub-areas are Afames and Laona.
Laona Akamas : The area comprises six coastal communities northwest of Paphos. The mythical peninsula of Akamas is protected because of its special plant wealth.
Pitsilia : The largest area comprises 32 villages on the eastern edge of the Troodos Mountains above Commandaria and is also known for its fruit trees and rose cultures.
Vouni Panayia Ambelitis : The double area is located in the central west of the island on the western edge of the Troodos Mountains northeast of Paphos.
The majority of production is attributable to the four major companies Etko Keo, Loel and Sodap, located around Limassol in the south of the island. These mainly produce for export, mainly wine for industrial processing (eg. Sangria and wormwood ), Concentrated grape must or RTK (eg for British Wine ) and Likörweine.Zum possession of these companies include some regional wineries. The more than 50 private wineries produce only about 15% of the quantity (with an upward trend) with increasingly high quality standards. These include Aes Ambelis, Amforeas (Kolios), Ampelokipeftiki, Antoniades, Ayia Mavri, Bolita, Chrisorogiatissa, Constantinou Distillery, Costas N. Erimoudes, Ezousa, Fikardos, Gaia, Hadjiantonas, Harma, Krelan, Kyperounta, Kykkos Monastery, Lagria, Linos, Menardos, Nelion, Nicolaides, Nikolettino, Vouni Panayias, Shoufas, Tsalapatis, Tsangarides, Tsiakkas, Vardalis, Vasa, Vasilikon, Vlassides, Yiaskouris, Zambartas Zenon.