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DO area for the famous Dessert wine in the Spanish region Andalusia, which is named after the province or provincial capital on the Costa del Sol (south coast). In the same area are also normal white, rosé and red wines under the DO designation Sierras de Málaga produced. The Málaga is one of the oldest wine types mentioned in writing and was already in the antiquity famous. The city was built around 800 BC From the Phoenicians founded. Around 600 BC BC, the Greeks settled in Malaga and brought their winemaking skills. Around 202 BC the city came under Roman rule under the name "Flavia Malacita". In 743 it was conquered by the Moors. During the Arab occupation there was one alcohol ban with the death penalty for drunks. Later this was replaced by fines and taxes.
In 1223, the King of France, Philip II August (1165-1223), organized the "Battle of the Wines". At this event, the most prestigious wines of the era were presented. The Málaga wine was referred to as "cardinal among the wines". Only in August 1487 Málaga came back in the wake of the Reconquista in the possession of the Christian kings. This month, therefore, a 10-day hilarious celebration is celebrated annually. In the 18th century, the wine was already well known beyond its borders. In 1791, the Spanish Ambassador in Moscow gave some caskets to the Russian Empress Catherine II (1729-1796). This was enthusiastic and decreed that this could be introduced duty-free in the future. In the Victorian era under the English Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the popularity reached a climax.
In 1806, the "Casa y Compañía de Comercio de Viñeros de Málaga" was founded by royal decree: "To theadulterateTo prevent the grapes as much as possible, labels of origin, which are difficult to falsify, are applied to the vessels, boxes or bales they contain. Two smart people are selected to make sure the wines are as perfect as possible. " On 1 July 1900, a strict regulation was adopted and the origin certified by a certificate of origin. In the mid-19th century, the province of Málaga was still the second largest Spanish wine-growing region, with 100,000 hectares of vineyards. Especially by the Phylloxera disaster There was a considerable reduction.
Today, the vineyard covers only about 12,000 hectares, of which the DO area around 1,200 hectares. It is subdivided into the five subregions Axarquía (picture), Norte, Costa Occidental, Montes and as the youngest Serranía de Ronda. The vineyards are located in 54 communities around the cities of Málaga and Estepona and inland to the banks of the Genil in up to 700 meters above sea level. In the north, the soil is interspersed with lime. Tonschiefer predominates in the Axarquía in the northeast. In the east one finds chalk soils and on the sierra sandy loamy soils.
A Malaga can be an extremely long-lived wine. A bottled in 1875 from the estate of the Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) was tasted in 1995 and showed no impairment. It should be noted, however, that this exception is not the rule and there are also very simple and young to be enjoyed qualities. The Malaga must be made of the varieties Pero Ximén ( Pedro Ximénez ) and / or Moscatel be pressed. Under Moscatel is mainly the Moscatel de Alejandría ( Muscat d'Alexandrie ), but it is also Moscatel Morisco ( Muscat Blanc ) authorized. There may also be concentrated musts and dry wines of the varieties Doradilla, Lairén ( Airén ) and Romé be used, provided that these total a maximum of 30%.
The fully ripe grapes are spread on straw mats after harvest and sun-dried for up to three weeks. Evaporation of the water produces rosinised grapes with the highest sugar content. In principle, the expansion must be carried out in the bodegas of the city of Malaga in accordance with the DO regulations. Similar to sherry The Malaga (alternative) is also produced with the Solera system. That is, different wines and vintages are blended together. The sweetness is usually by breaking off the fermentation Spriten achieved with alcohol. Other types are used before or after fermentation arrope sweetened (unfermented, boiled must). Most types are aged in oak barrels for up to five years and longer oxidatively expanded,
Information on the bottle label
On the bottle label you will find information about the degree of sweetness, color, aging (in barrel), alcohol content and type.
seco - below 4 g / l
semiseco - 4 to 12 g / l
semidulce - 12 to 45 g / l
dulce - over 45 g / l
Dry Pale / Pale Dry - without Arrope, residual sugar up to 45 g / l
Pale Cream - without Arrope, residual sugar over 45 g / l
Dulce Crema / Cream - aged, residual sugar 100 to 140 g / l
Sweet - aged, residual sugar over 140 g / l
Dorado / Golden - naturally sweet, without arrope, aged
Rojo Dorado / Rose Gold - up to 5% Arrope, aged
Oscuro / Brown - 5 to 10% Arrope, aged
Color - 10 to 15% Arrope, aged
Negro / Dark - more than 15% Arrope, aged
Málaga Joven - young wine, no aging
Málaga - aged 6 to 24 months
Málaga Noble - aged 2 to 3 years
Málaga Añejo - 3 to 5 years aged
Málaga Trasañejo - aged over 5 years
Vino de licor (Liqueur wine) - 15 to 22% vol
Vino dulce natural - 15 to 22% vol, to. 244 g / l
Vino naturalmente dulce - to. 13% vol, to. 300 g / l, without Spriten
Vino tranquilo - 10 to 15% vol, without sprites
There are around 15 Malaga types between dry and sweet and an alcohol content between 15 and 22% vol.
Pedro Ximénez (Pero Ximén) and Moscatel : The name of a variety may be used if the wine has been produced from at least 85% of the corresponding variety, minus the amount of products possibly used for sweetening.
Pálido : name for the types Pedro Xyménez and Moscatel, to which neither Arrope added nor alcohol and which were also not subjected to aging.
Pajarete (Paxarete) : A liqueur wine or Vino dulce natural without the addition of Arrope. The dark amber wine matures for at least two years and has a residual sugar content between 45 and 140 g / l.
Dulce Color : This is the classic Málaga - sweet, dark colored and strong in alcohol. He must have at least 300 g / l residual sugar content and (before spritting) at least 13% vol. Have alcohol content. Mixed with up to 15% Arrope, the wine is mainly made from Pedro Ximénez but may also contain small amounts of Moscatel.
Lágrima and Lacrimae Christi : For the top product, only the natural pressure of the uncultivated grapes expires run juice (Lagrima = tears) similar to the Eszencia at the Hungarian Tokaj used. The mahogany wine has a caramel and roasted aroma and is made up to 14 to 22% alcohol by volume. A mature over two years Lágrima called "Lacrimae Christi" (Tears of Christ).
There are around 425 winegrowers and 16 wineries (bodegas) that produce around 60,000 hectoliters of wine each year. Of these, more than a third is exported. Well-known producers are Barceló, Gomara, Larios, López García, López Hermanos, López-Madrid, Muñoz Cabrera, Pérez Teixera, Quitapenas, Sweetheart, Scholtz Hermanos (closed in 1996 - but wines are still on sale), Telmo Rodríguez and Tierras de Molina.
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,