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DO area for the famous Dessert wine in the Spanish region Andalusia, which is named after the province or capital of the same name on the Costa del Sol (south coast). In the same area also normal white, rosé and red wines are sold under the DO name Sierra de Málaga produced. The Málaga is one of the oldest wine types mentioned in writing and was already in the antiquity famous. The city was founded around 800 BC. BC from the Phoenicians founded. Around 600 BC The Greeks settled in Malaga and brought their wine-making knowledge with them. Around 202 BC the city came under Roman rule under the name "Flavia Malacita". In 743 it was conquered by the Moors. There was one during the Arab occupation alcohol ban with the death penalty for drunks. This was later replaced by fines and taxes.
In 1223, the King of France, Philip II August 1165-1223, organized the "Battle of the Wines". The most prestigious wines of the era were presented at this event. The Málaga wine was called "Cardinal among the wines". It was only in August 1487 that Malaga regained possession of the Christian kings in the course of the Reconquista. This month, therefore, a 10-day exuberant festival is celebrated annually. In the 18th century, wine was known far beyond its borders. In 1791 the Spanish ambassador to Moscow gave Russian Tsarina Catherine II (1729-1796) a few boxes. This was enthusiastic and decreed that it could be imported duty-free in the future. In the Victorian era under the English Queen Victoria (1819-1901), the popularity peaked.
In 1806 the “Casa y Compañía de Comercio de Viñeros de Málaga” was founded by royal decree: “Um dasadulterateTo prevent the grapes as much as possible, originals are applied to the containers, boxes or bales that contain them, which are difficult to forge. Two intelligent people are selected to ensure that the wines are as perfect as possible ”. On July 1, 1900, strict regulations were passed and the ancestry certified by a certificate of origin. In the middle of the 19th century, the province of Málaga was the second largest Spanish wine-growing region with 100,000 hectares of vineyards. Especially through the Phylloxera disaster there was a significant reduction.
Today, the vineyard area only comprises around 12,000 hectares, of which the DO area around 1,200 hectares. It is divided into the five subareas Axarquía (picture), Norte, Costa Occidental, Montes and the youngest Serranía de Ronda. The vineyards are located in 54 municipalities around the cities of Málaga and Estepona and inland up to the banks of the Genil at up to 700 meters above sea level. In the north, the soils are interspersed with lime. Clay slate predominates in the Axarquía in the northeast. In the east you can find chalk floors and in the Sierra sandy clay soils.
A Malaga can be an extremely long-lived wine. A bottle from the Duke of Wellington estate (1769-1852), bottled in 1875, was tasted in 1995 and showed no impairment. It should be noted, however, that this is not an exception and that there are also very simple and young qualities to enjoy. The Malaga must be made from the Pero Ximén ( Pedro Ximénez ) and / or Moscatel are pressed. Moscatel mainly includes the Moscatel de Alejandría ( Muscat d'Alexandrie ) to understand, but it is also Moscatel Morisco ( Muscat Blanc ) authorized. Concentrated musts and dry wine of the varieties are also allowed Doradilla, Lairén ( Airén ) and Romé are used, provided that they make up a maximum of 30%.
After harvesting, the fully ripe grapes are spread out on straw mats and sun-dried for up to three weeks. Evaporation of the water gives rise to raisin grapes with the highest sugar content. In principle, the expansion must take place in the bodegas of the city of Malaga in accordance with the DO regulation. Similar to sherry the Malaga (alternatively) is also produced with the Solera system. This means that different wines and vintages are blended together. The sweetness is mostly broken down by fermentation Spriten reached with wine spirit. Other types are used before or after fermentation arrope (fermented, boiled must) sweetened. Most types are in oak barrels for up to five years and longer expanded oxidatively,
Information on the bottle label
The bottle label contains information about the degree of candy, color, aging (in the barrel), alcohol content and type.
seco - less than 4 g / l
semiseco - 4 to 12 g / l
semidulce - 12 to 45 g / l
dulce - over 45 g / l
Dry Pale / Pale Dry - without arrope, residual sugar up to 45 g / l
Pale Cream - without arrope, residual sugar over 45 g / l
Dulce Crema / Cream - aged, residual sugar 100 to 140 g / l
Sweet - aged, residual sugar over 140 g / l
Dorado / Golden - naturally sweet, without arrope, aged
Rojo Dorado / rose gold - up to 5% arrope, aged
Oscuro / Brown - 5 to 10% Arrope, aged
Color - 10 to 15% arrope, aged
Negro / dark - more than 15% arrope, aged
Málaga Joven - young wine, no aging
Málaga - aged 6 to 24 months
Málaga Noble - aged 2 to 3 years
Málaga Añejo - aged 3 to 5 years
Málaga Trasañejo - aged over 5 years
Vino de licor (liqueur wine) - 15 to 22% vol
Vino dulce natural - 15 to 22% vol, for. 244 g / l
Vino naturalmente dulce - for. 13% vol, to. 300 g / l, without fuel
Vino tranquilo - 10 to 15% vol, without sprites
There are around 15 types of Malaga between dry and sweet and an alcohol content between 15 and 22% vol.
Pedro Ximénez (Pero Ximén) and Moscatel : the name of a variety may be used if the wine is made from at least 85% of the corresponding variety, minus the amount of products that may be used for sweetening.
Pálido : Description for the types Pedro Xyménez and Moscatel, to which neither arrope nor alcohol have been added and which have not undergone any aging.
Pajarete (Paxarete) : A liqueur wine or vino dulce natural without the addition of arrope. The dark amber-colored wine matures for at least two years and has a residual sugar content between 45 and 140 g / l.
Dulce Color : This is the classic Málaga - sweet, dark colored and strong in alcohol. It must have at least 300 g / l residual sugar content and (before spritting) at least 13% vol. Have alcohol content. The wine with up to 15% arrope is mainly made from Pedro Ximénez, but can also contain small amounts of Moscatel.
Lágrima and Lacrimae Christi : For the top product, only the one that has expired from the autogenous pressure of the uncrushed grapes run juice (Lagrima = tears) similar to the Eszencia in the Hungarian Tokaj used. The mahogany-colored wine has a caramel and roasted aroma and is fortified to 14 to 22% vol alcohol. A Lágrima matured over two years is called “Lacrimae Christi” (Tears of Christ).
There are around 425 winegrowers and 16 wineries (bodegas) that produce around 60,000 hectoliters of wine annually. More than a third of these are exported. Well-known producers are Barceló, Gomara, Larios, López García, López Hermanos, López-Madrid, Muñoz Cabrera, Pérez Teixera, Quitapenas, Schatz, Scholtz Hermanos (closed in 1996 - but wines are still on sale), Telmo Rodríguez and Tierras de Molina.
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,