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In ancient times brought , Greeks and Roman vines on the Iberian Peninsula. Under the long Moorish rule from the 8th to the 12th century, although the viticulture stagnated, came despite the not to stop. As in many other countries, they influenced viticulture decisively, in the 12th century they founded more than 100 monasteries. King Dinis (1279-1325) promoted agriculture and wine-growing to such a great extent that with the proceeds a merchant fleet was built and thus the basis for the rise to world power was created. He was therefore nicknamed "Rei lavrador" (King of the peasants). From independence in 1385, developed a busy wine trade with England ,
The most famous and famous wine in Portugal is undisputed , Its great triumph began when in 1703 the Methuen Treaty Vertrag between England and Portugal. This provided for large tariff reductions for imports of Portuguese wines. Already in 1756 were by the famous Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782) arranged, precise demarcations for the Douro-Gebiet established. This therefore counts beside Chianti the very first Areas. A special role in port wine trading played in 1790 in opened Factory House in which British factors negotiated and concluded deals among themselves.
In the 19th century were through Mehltau and most of Portugal&39;s vineyards are destroyed. Only from 1930 it came to a reconstruction. After the end of the dictatorship in 1974, the transition from production began cheaper on quality products. Due to the climate, the land is ideal for viticulture, because the viniferous northern part of Portugal has plenty and long, nice summers. The floors are mostly granite and slate. Viticulture is an extremely important economic factor in Portugal, with around 15% of the population living on it. In 2012, were produced by 233,000 hectares of 6.32 million hectoliters of wine. To 30% white wines and 70% rosé and red wines are produced. Among the best known Portuguese wines are probably the dessert wines Madeira and , as Vinho Verde , However, the rose wine created in 1942 Mateus from the company founded in the same year Sogrape and similar products like Lancers by the company Fonseca With 40% of the Portuguese export volume, this has already run out of time for a long time.
At over 50%, Portugal is the world&39;s largest producer of Of which about half come from the province Alentejo , Another special feature are the countless native vines. In the "land of the 500 autochthonous grape varieties" these were formerly largely as grown. The often same names or synonyms cause confusion, but be through DNA-Analysen more and more descent clarified. It was not until the 1980s, mainly due to EU provisions regarding quality wines began to create varietal vineyards. Many of the predominantly native grape varieties are there (partly with other names) in the adjacent , Among the first 20 in the table, there is no international variety with a single exception (Syrah). Of the 2010:
Wine categories : In August 2009, the EU wine market regulations became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes to the wine names and quality levels. There are the following new names or quality levels (see also in detail under ). The traditional terms Vinho Regional and DOC are still possible alternatively:
Vinho (formerly Vino de Mesa or ) =
IGP or IG or alternatively VR =
DOP or alternatively DOC =
Vinho : Wines without a denomination of origin. This lowest quality level is mostly blends from different growing areas.
IGP or IG (Indicação Geográfica Protegida) or Vinho Regional : A country wine with protected geographical indication. The regulations contain certain criteria such as: Grape variety (85% must come from the area) and alcohol content, but offer relatively large scope. There are 14 rural wine areas; see the list below.
IPR (Indicacao de Proveniencia Regulamentada) : The former DOC precursor was abandoned in 2011.
DOP (Denominação de Origem Protegida) or DOC(Denominacão de OrigemControlada): A quality wine with a protected designation of origin. There are grape varieties, minimum maturation times in barrels and bottle, minimum values for . and (Dry extract), as well and Aroma required. Before the marketing must have a and respectively. There are around 30 quality wine areas; see the list below.
Other names : For the age or maturation of a wine, there are the names Verde (green, no aging), Maduro (old or aged in barrel), Reserva (Reds three years old, one in bottle, one white wine one year, of which six months in bottle), Garrafeira (like Reserva and higher alcohol content) and Velho (Red wine three, white wine two years old).
The sweetness levels given on the label are seco = dry, meio seco = semi-dry, meio doce = semisweet, doce (also adamado, suave) = sweet.
The following is a list of IGP and DOP areas in alphabetical order of the Portuguese regions (well-known wineries are listed there):