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Wine culture already existed in the 4th century BC on the south coast of the peninsula Crimea, from this time wine presses and amphorae found. In the northern part, however, it only developed much later from monks in the 11th century. In the Middle Ages, the Genoese, who then owned Sudak, traded Crimean wines across Europe. Under Catherine II (1729-1796) the Crimean peninsula became part of the Russian Empire in 1783. Her favorite Grigori Alexandrowitsch Potjomkin (1739-1791) made it arable and also promoted viticulture. The count imported vines from Italy, Spain and France, where the climate was very similar to that in the Crimea. The soil around the city of Sudak was particularly fertile. Here is the Solnechnaya Dolina (Sonnental), which is aptly labeled with 300 days of sunshine a year, with a large winery of the same name. Count Mikhail left near Yalta Vorontsov (1782-1856) create vineyards in 1820 and build a large winery. Nearby he founded the wine-growing institute in 1828 Magarach,
The German scientist and academician Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811), who was brought in from Berlin by Catherine II and who created large wine plantations in the Sudak region, deserves special credit for Russian winegrowing. He was the first to describe in detail around 40 indigenous grape varieties. Prince Lev Golizyn founded the still existing winery in 1878 Nowyj Swet (New World) in Sudak. A sparkling wine was first produced in 1799 in the climatically favored cities of Sudak and Alushta. But the quantities were insignificant. As the founder of the famous Crimean champagne (Shampanskoye Krimskoye) applies to Golitsyn. On behalf of Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918), he also founded today's state winery Massandra,
It was initiated by Mikhail in the mid-1980s Gorbachev (* 1931) started an anti-alcohol campaign. Through extensive clearings the vine stock was reduced from 225,000 hectares to less than 100,000 hectares. This set winegrowing back for decades. In February 2014, civil war-like conditions occurred. The “Crimean Crisis” subsequently led to a referendum in which the majority of the Crimean population allegedly spoke in favor of joining the Russian Federation (but it was estimated that it was only around 30-50% of the Crimean population, of which around 50- 60% for the separation). Ukraine continues to see Crimea as an autonomous republic and part of its own territory, Russia however, as a separate federal district. The UN declared the referendum invalid by a large majority.
Ukraine consists of four major wine-growing regions. This is by far the largest area in the southwest around the city of Odessa with almost 50% of the total area, the peninsula Crimea on the Black Sea with around a third of that Slovakia. Hungary and Romania adjacent Transcarpathian area , as well as the area south of the river Dnieper near the cities of Kherson and Dnieperpetrovsk . The continental climate is characterized by hot summers and severe winters to over minus 30 ° Celsius. In 2012, 2.4 million hectoliters of wine were produced from 78,000 hectares of vineyards. Known brand wines of the country Kagor. Naddniprjanske and Tschorny doctor, Almost 180 grape varieties are cultivated, including the majority of indigenous or varieties grown here. The Blend in 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):